Application of Hardy-Weinberg principle in population genetics

There are 2 types of populations:

1. Real population ( Influenced by non-random mating, mutations, selection, random genetic drift, gene flow and meiotic drive [1])

2. Basic idealized population [2] (more…)


Collagen & related disorders

Collagen is the main component of connective tissue, and is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up about 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. (more…)

Laboratory values of clinical importance

SourceHarrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition.


International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes. This includes the analysis of the general health situation of population groups. It is used to monitor the incidence and prevalence of diseases and other health problems.


Rh Incompatibility in Pregnancy

The most common type of Rh incompatibility occurs when an Rh-negative pregnant mother is exposed to Rh-positive fetal red blood cells secondary to fetomaternal hemorrhage during the course of pregnancy from spontaneous or induced abortion, trauma, invasive obstetric procedures, or normal delivery [1].

Rh incompatibility can also occur when an Rh-negative female receives an Rh-positive blood transfusion.


Syndromic management of STI

Aetiological diagnosis of STI is problematic in many settings. To overcome this, a syndrome-based approach to the management of STI patients was developed and promoted in a large number of countries in the developing world.

Syndromic management is based on the identification of consistent groups of symptoms and easily recognized signs (syndromes), and the provision of treatment that will deal with the majority or most serious organisms responsible for producing a syndrome.

WHO developed a simplified tool (a flowchart or algorithm) to guide health workers in the implementation of syndromic management.


WADA Prohibited List


Source: “The World Anti-Doping Code: The 2012 Prohibited List”

Both substances and methods (such as blood doping) are included in the Prohibited List. They will be included if they meet at least two of the following criteria:

  • Potential to enhance sports performance
  • Actual or potential health risk to an athlete
  • Its use violates the spirit of sport.

Some substances or methods are included on the List because they have the potential to mask another prohibited substance or method.


No Smoking Awareness